Secondary Research

Authour: Thuy Linh Do Edited by Christine Keene Overview Secondary Research is a common research method; it involves using information that others have gathered through primary research. Advantages The information already exists and is readily available  -> quick & low cost Helps guide the focus of any subsequent primary research being conducted Internal secondary data […]

Rapid Prototyping

Authours: Jeff Ranson & Margaret Lahn Edited by Christine Keene Problem Innovations communicated verbally are often difficult to imagine. Since they are abstract ideas, it is difficult to get a sense of what they will look and feel like. Solution Rapid prototyping is the act of creating a low-fidelity object for the purpose of testing […]

Rapid Prototyping With CNC Tools

Authour:Alex Leitch Edited by Christine Keene Overview Rapid prototyping with CNC tools is a continuation of the sketch processes to develop a physical product. Although 2D and electronic sketch processes are commonly used to iterate software product designs, they are less commonly used in physical product design due to the historic expense.  That expense has […]


Authour: Trevor Haldenby Edited by Christine Keene Problem It can be difficult for researchers to observe some of a community’s most important behaviors, particularly when that community is wary of outsiders, isolated, underserved, oppressed or operating without written language. In these situations, observational research conducted by outsiders can result in a skewed and inaccurate view […]

Lead User Research

Authour: D. Lloyd Gray Edited by Christine Keene Overview Lead Users (senior members of a group using a product or process) frequently modify or develop systems and products to solve problems they are encountering for which there are no existing solutions. Locating Lead Users and using them as key informants can be a cost –effective […]

Horizon Scan

Authour: John Harvey Edited by Christine Keene Overview The practice of horizon scanning has its origin in the discipline of Futures Studies or Futurology, which is the systematic forecasting of the future from present trends in society. ‘Futures’, according to Wikipedia (n.d.), seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. […]

Design Fiction

Authours: Zahra Ebrahim & Carl Hastrich Edited by Christine Keene Problem Traditionally, companies, organizations and governments have used speculative design practices: linear, expert-led ideation that extrapolates from internal technological innovation. Speculative design has been more linked to showboating innovation capacity than to gauging broader cultural responses. As disciplinary boundaries begin to blur and traditional scientific […]

Citizen Juries: An Action Research Method

Authour: Hilary Best Edited by Christine Keene Problem In a democratic society, it is widely recognized that the best solutions are those that are embraced by the population. Consequently, public consultation has played a central role in public decision-making (Wiklund and Viklund, 2010). In Canada, a consultation process is a key component of many policy-making […]

Behavioural Mapping

Authour: Kirk Clyne Edited by Christine Keene Problem In any man-made environment, discrepancies may exist between the intent of its design and how it is actually used. Solution Behavioural Mapping allows researchers to determine how participants use a designed space by recording participant behaviours and/or tracking participant movement within the space itself. Use When Behavioural […]


Authours: Karl Schroeder & Robert Tilley Edited by Christine Keene Problem Goal-oriented foresight methodologies may declare targets that lie quite far in the future. For example: Reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2050 Put astronauts on Mars by 2030 There is a disconnect between such long-range targets and immediate policy and […]