Category Archives: Define

Lead User Research

Authour: D. Lloyd Gray Edited by Christine Keene Overview Lead Users (senior members of a group using a product or process) frequently modify or develop systems and products to solve problems they are encountering for which there are no existing solutions. Locating Lead Users and using them as key informants can be a cost –effective […]

Citizen Juries: An Action Research Method

Authour: Hilary Best Edited by Christine Keene Problem In a democratic society, it is widely recognized that the best solutions are those that are embraced by the population. Consequently, public consultation has played a central role in public decision-making (Wiklund and Viklund, 2010). In Canada, a consultation process is a key component of many policy-making […]

Cross-Impact Analysis as a Research Pattern

Authours: Goran Matic & Martin Berry Edited by Christine Keene Problem Quite often, there are research contexts and situations where understanding the likelihood of future events is beneficial, desirable or required—as in future forecasting scenarios—in order to clarify the probability of some set of events taking place or to obtain a deeper understanding of a […]

World Cafe

Authours:Uma Mahara & Chris Meier Edited by Christine Keene Problem Even with technology that facilitates an increasing interconnectedness among people, disengagement is an issue. What is lacking is the synergy that happens through human interaction and discussion: making sense of the really important issues and possible solutions. Understanding the issues that contribute to complex problems […]


Authour:Josina Vink Edited by Christine Keene Problem Understanding complexity, developing empathy, establishing common ground, and eliciting participation and collaboration with stakeholders. Solution Storytelling is a flexible design research method with a broad range of applications, associated processes and variations. While there are no universal standards for implementation, there are a variety of documented procedures for […]

Scenario Planning

Authours: Ian Gray & John Cassel Edited by Christine Keene Problem Complex system design requires an approach that identifies significant driving forces in advance of their effects on the system. Seldom, if ever, are systems in stasis, and they are best designed with this in mind. Process and form together establish a condition within which […]

5 Why’s

Authour: Ana Matic Edited by Christine Keene Problem As a problem arises, it is easy to focus on the symptoms exhibited rather than on the root causes that created those symptoms, thereby missing the opportunity to solve for the correct problem. In addition, situational team dynamics can drive to rushed solutions or place blame without […]


Arthour:Gabe Sawhney Edited by Christine Keene Problem Expert roundtables are a tool for quickly gathering opinions and perspectives from well-informed people. However, the problem with roundtables is that they can produce conflicting information. More influential, aggressive or senior roundtable members can inadvertently exert undue influence on the result. It can also be difficult to get […]


Author:Oksana Kachur & Peter Jones Edited by Christine Keene Problem: “Computeritis” is a growing problem. The computer is a logic machine that only makes visible the conditions that existed before it. People, on the other hand, are logical but also perceptive. Dennis Schliecher, Director of User Experience architecture with Sears, argues that we are becoming […]

Appreciative Inquiry

Authors: Mark Singh & Douglas Reid Edited by Christine Keene Problem: Traditional participatory citizen/employee engagement approaches to dialogue and deliberation are often designed to determine local problems, resource constraints, deficiencies and unmet basic needs. After participating in these traditional approaches, stakeholders often view their community or organization as one of problems and needs—most of which […]